When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960′s, before personal
computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and Polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions. 我年轻那会儿，有一本非常好的杂志，叫做《环球目录》，算得上我那一辈人的圣经。创办这本杂志的人名叫斯图尔特·布兰德，他就住在离这里不远的门罗公园。他用诗意的笔触为这本杂志赋予了生命。那是六十年代，个人电脑和电脑出版还未普及，因此整本杂志都是用打字机、剪刀和拍立得相机完成的，可以成为纸质版的谷歌搜索，但却比谷歌早出现了35年。它是理想主义的化身，满篇都是整洁的工具和伟大的观点。
Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.” It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.
run his course: 完成使命
sign off: 停止签发，停止
We all have problems and barriers that block our progress, or prevent us from moving into new areas. Our problems might include the fear of speaking in front of a group, anxiety about math problems, or the reluctance to sound silly trying to speak a foreign language. It's natural to have problems and barriers, but sometimes they limit our experience so much, we get bored with life. When that happens, consider the following three ways of dealing with the problem or barrier.
One way is to pretend it doesn't exist. Avoid it, deny it, and lie about it. It's like turning your head the other way, putting on a fake grin, and saying, "See, there's really no problem at all. Everything is fine."
In addition to looking foolish, this approach leaves the barrier intact, and we keep bumping into it. So, a second approach is to fight the barrier, to struggle against it. This usually makes the barrier grow. It increases the barrier's magnitude. A person who is obsessed with weight might constantly worry about being fat. He might struggle with it every day, trying diet after diet. And the more he struggles, the bigger the problem gets.
The third alternative is to love the barrier. Accept it. Totally experience it. Tell the truth about it. Describe it in detail.
Applying this process is easier if you remember two ideas. First, loving a problem is not necessarily the same as enjoying it. Love in this sense means total and unconditional acceptance. Second, unconditional acceptance is not the same as unconditional surrender. Accepting a problem is different than giving up or escaping from it. Rather, this process involves escaping into the problem, diving into it headfirst, and getting to know it in detail.
Often the most effective solutions come, when we face a problem squarely, with eyes wide open, then we can move through the problem, instead of around it. When you are willing to love your problems, you drain them of much of their energy.
本文选自Dave Ellis 的著作Becoming a Master Student其中的一个章节：Love your problems and experience your barriers，本文主要介绍了解决问题的三种办法，第一种是直接无视它，就当不存在；第二种是正视它，挑战它，第三种则是爱上困难，充分体验。然后又 给出两个观点，教你更容易地应用这些办法。
Obviously Kell has been unhappy with her present job. She works as a nurse but she would drop a teacher at a primary or secondary school.
We don't have enough information for our financial plan, but it's due tomorrow. I'm afraid we'll just have to make do with what we have got.
There is more pressure than ever in the competitive job market to stand out from the crowd. Continuing your education is one way to get that extra edge.
Our production supervisor warned John to punch in on time, dress appropriately for the job and stop taking extra breaks.
The ability to work effectively with people from other countries is especially important if you plan a career in MMC management where international experience is an essential prerequisite.
Now it is common to find fast food restaurants everywhere. These restaurants serve people who are too rushed to find time to eat a proper meal.
Makinen hit what appeared to be oil on the road,and his car slammedinto a concrete barrier, tearing the right rear wheel almost completely off his Mitsubishi Lancer.
One of the greatest public health successes has been the massive decline in smoking rates, which
are now translating into reduced deaths from cancer and heart disease.
In modern society, private houses are not just places for people to live in. Rich people have long-viewed real-estate as a suitable vehicle for their earnings.
You need to draw a vertical line two inches from the left edge of your note-taking page. With this line, you still have six inches of space on the right to write down you notes.
2. 此题描述利用现在资源做经济计划的事。考生应注意due（到期）以及make do with（勉强应对）便可知题意。
3. 此题描述如何应对就业压力大的一种方法。难点在extra edge (额外的奖励或优势)。
6. 此题描述快餐店服务的人群。重点在第二句，fast restaurant 应为熟知单词，根据意思也能理解题意。
7. 此题描述Makinen 撞车的原因和结果。难点是单词，concrete barrier (水泥栏杆)，rear wheel(后轮)。
8. 此题描述公众健康取得的一大成就。难点是要了解一些普通疾病的说法以及death rate(死亡率)，decline(下降)。
9. 此题描述私人住宅不仅是用来居住的现状。real-estate(不动产)，vehicle (工具，媒介)。
10. 此题描述划线的问题。掌握单词vertical (垂直的)，考生还应注意具体数字。
Talks and Conversations 1
W: Ah, Bill, have you got a minute?
M: Yes, but can you make it fast? I?m pretty busy.
W: OK. Ah, I?m sorry about this, Bill. I know you?re busy but I?ve got to go somewhere this afternoon. Can I take the afternoon off?
M: Oh, come on, Helen!
W: But it?s really important. I mean it is really something urgent.
M: Look, I?m sorry Helen but I can?t. I?ve got two people off sick.
W: Well, how about a couple...
M: Look, we?ve got to finish this report today. The boss has been waiting in the office.
W: I know that, Bill. How about just an hour?
M: Yes, all right. I suppose so. But next time I want a bit more warning.
11. Why did Helen want to talk to Bill?
12. What is the relationship between the man and the woman?
13. At last, how long was Helen permitted to take her leave?
14. What did Bill want Helen to do next time?
关键词：take off：请假 urgent：adj. 紧急的 warning：adj. 警告的；引以为戒的
Talks and Conversations 2
Hi, welcome, today I am going to talk about how children learn social behaviors. Especially how they learn lessons from the family, which is the most basic unit of our social structure. There is a lot of discussion these days about how families are changing and whether non-traditional families have a good or bad effect on children. But it is important to remember that the type of family a child comes from is not nearly as important as the kind of love and support that exist in a home. There are three ways by which children acquire their behavior through rewards, punishments and finally modeling. In today?s lecture, let?s first discuss rewards. A reward can be defined as a positive reinforcement for good behavior. An example of a reward is when a parent says, “If you eat your vegetables, you can have ice cream for dessert”. Or a parent might say, “Finish your homework first, then you can watch TV.” Most parents use rewards unconsciously because they want their children to behave well. For example, a parent might give a gift to a child, because the child behaved well. Or parents may give a child money for doing what the parents asked.
15. What is discussed in the lecture?
16. According to the talk , what is more important for children to learn good social behaviors?
17. There are three ways by which children acquire their behavior. Which one is discussed in detail in the talk?
18. Which of the following is not a positive reinforcement for good behavior?
关键词：Social behavior 社会行为，社交行为 Social structure 社会结构
Talks and Conversations 3
John: Good morning, Betty. Do you know what the assignment is for our term paper in history? Betty: Sure John. But weren?t you in class on Monday? That?s when it was given out.
John: No, I missed that class. Was there a handout?
Betty: No, the instructor just wrote the assignment on the board.
John: Could I copy the assignment from your notes?
Betty: You could if I had copied it all down, but I just wrote down the part that I wanted. John: Oh no...
Betty: You see, there were four choices of topics for the term paper, but when I saw them, I knew which one I wanted, so I didn?t copy the others down.
John: Can you remember any of the others?
Betty: Let?s see... There was one about World War I, something about it, but I don?t remember what. And there was one called the idea of progress in the 19th century.
John: And what was the last one?
Betty: I can?t remember. My mind is a complete blank. Maybe you could ask someone else. John: Yes, I will. Anyway, those are certainly broad topics.
Betty: Yes, but you can focus on a special area within them. Which one would you take?
John: Of course, I don?t know what the last one is, but of these three, I think I?d take the idea of progress.
Betty: That?s very abstract.
John: Yes, but it is one of my interests and I?ve read a lot on the subject. I?ve never written a term paper on it though.
Betty: Me neither. I haven?t even read about it. Are you going to class on Wednesday?
SECTION 1: LISTENING TEST (45 minutes)
Part A: Spot Dictation
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the word or words you have heard on the tape. Write your answer in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. Remember you will hear the passage ONLY ONCE.
My topic for today?s lecture is communication, culture and work. When most people use the word culture, they think of people from different national backgrounds. National cultures certainly do exist and they play an important role in shaping the way people communicate, but there are other dimensions of culture too. Within a nation, regional differences can exert a powerful influence on communication. New Yorkers and Alaskans may find one another?s styles of
behaving so different that they might as well be from different countries. Race and ethnicity can also shape behavior. So can age. The customs, values and attitudes of a twenty-year-old girl may vary radically from those of her parents who were raised in the 1960s or her grandparents who lived through the Great Depression and World War Ⅱ. Still, other differences can create
distinctive cultures. Gender, sexual orientation, physical disabilities, religion and socio-economic background are just a few. All of these factors lead to a definition of culture as a set of values, beliefs, norms, customs, rules and codes that lead people to define themselves as a distinct group, giving them a sense of commonality. It?s important to realize that culture is learned, not innate. A Korean-born infant adopted soon after her birth by American parents and raised in the United States will think and act differently than his or her cousins who grew up in Seoul. An African American who grew up in the inner city will view the world differently than he or she would if raised in the suburbs or in a country like France where African heritage has different significance than it does in the United States. The norms and values we learn as part of our cultural
conditioning shape the way we view the world and the way we interact with one another. In short, culture has such an overwhelming influence on communication that famous anthropologist Edward Hall once remarked, ?culture is communication and communication is culture.?
全文围绕关键信息“other dimensions of culture”，字面意思是其他的文化维度，指的是除国籍外其他造成文化差异的因素。
文章首先给出纽约人和阿拉斯加人在交流过程中行事风格不同的例子，提出了地域性差异造成文化差异的概念。而后补充道不同人种和种族同样是形成文化交流差异的因素，紧接着文章便通过老中青三代人不同的思想意识观念的例子抛出了另外一个关键隐私——年龄。文章还提出了一个较传统观念所不同的观点，It?s important to realize that culture is
learned, not innate，即文化差异并非与生俱来，而是通过后天环境的影响逐渐形成的。韩裔和非裔美国人的例子说明了这一点。
最后引用人类学家Edward Hall的观点收尾，即文化与交流互相依附，不分彼此。Part B: Listening Comprehension
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear several short statements. These statements will be spoken ONLY ONCE, and you will not find them written on the paper; so you must listen carefully. When you hear a statement, read the answer choices and decide which one is closest in meaning to the statement you have heard. Then write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSER BOOKLET.
This report is urgent. I have to finish typing it by Monday morning. So there goes my sleep this weekend.
What this office needs is better sound proofing. I can?t concentrate here with all that traffic passing by on the street below.
Learning a language is a laborious process and adjusting to the subtle cultural differences require much more time and patience than anyone can imagine.
If you can talk your boss into investing in that project, it will be a turning point for your company, and we both shall benefit in the long run.
I?m afraid we?ve undercharged them. The invoice does not include the legal fee and our agency commission. I think we need to inform them of this immediately.
Being bilingual or multilingual can be an advantage in landing a job abroad, although fluency in other languages is not always a requirement.
I believe our proposal is a real contender for the contract. All we need to do is to work ourselves into position to close the deal.
We must prepare the ground for the deeper understanding of our differences and problems. Only through a share view of our problems, shall we be able to carry our collaboration forward.Question9.
Given the size of the order and the amount of heavy expenses on our side, anything less than a 10% discount is not worth the trouble.
Working burns calories. It takes about 3500 calories to lose just one pound of weight. And a one-hour walk at a moderate pace will burn up only 300 to 350 calories.
2. 该题描述了说话人对街上车辆噪音的不满。难点为sound proofing，意思是“隔音设备”。考生应注意抓住重点信息，前后进行推测。
4. 该题在谈论投资项目的问题。A turning point译为“转折点”。
的问题。主要应掌握几个单词和词组的意思。undercharge译为“索价低于常价”;legal fee译为“诉讼费”;agency commission译为“代理手续费”。
6. 该题讨论的是语言与海外工作的关系。主要应掌握几个单词和词组的意思。Bilingual译为“双语者”;multilingual译为“使用多种语言的人”;land a job译为“找工作”。
2. Talks and Conversations
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear several short talks and conversations. After each of these, you will hear a few questions. Listen carefully, because you will hear the talk or conversation and the questions ONLY ONCE. When you hear a question, read the four answer choices and choose the best answer to that question. Then write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
W: Hello, Purchasing Department. Earls Roger?s speaking.
M: Good morning, Ms Roger. This is John Stone from ABS Company. How are you?W: Quite good, thank you. Well, Mr Stone, we?re still studying your catalog and your products?
M: That?s very thoughtful of you, Ms Roger, but I?m calling to see if you?d like to see our showroom at the trade fair that opened last week.
W: Oh, I didn't know you would have a showroom there, I?d be glad to go and have a tour around the exhibition.
M: Just tell me when it would be convenient for you and we can arrange for the tour.W: Let me see. How about next Monday afternoon around 2:00?
M: That?s fine. I?ll be over at 1:30. It?s only a ten- to fifteen-minute drive from your department.
W: I can drive there in my own car. Shall we meet at the main gate of the trade fair?M: That?s Ok. I?ll be at the main gate at about 1:50. See you then.
W: Right. Goodbye.
11. Why is the man telephoning the woman?
12. What is the man?s profession according to the conversation?
13. When will the woman be free to visit the showroom at the trade fair?
14. Where will the man and the woman meet at the trade fair?
Purchasing Department 采购部;
showroom n. 陈列室;
trade fair 商品交易会;
exhibition n. 展览会;
convenient adj. 方便的，适合的;
Every human being, no matter where they are from, is born with the ability to smile. A smile is a natural reaction to a positive moment, like a friendly face or a clever joke.
Most babies first smile between 6 and 8 weeks old. At first, it is only the expression made when exercising their facial muscles or passing wind, but once they realize a smile gets thema lot of attention, huge smiles in return, happy noises, extra treats, they learn to try it again. And why wouldn?t they?It takes 43 muscles to frown, but only 17 to smile.
We smile when we are happy. We smile when we see people we know, but what happens when you are not happy to see someone you know? You smile anyway. You fake a smile. Unfortunately, however, a fake smile never looks quite the same as a real one. In the genuine smile you not only show your lower teeth, but also move the muscles running all the way around the mouth, which in turn makes the skin around the eyes become tighter and then your smile is real.
However, when someone smiles politely rather than because they really want to. They use the muscle which only raises the sides of the mouth and which does not move the muscles at the corners of the eyes, this kind of fake smile is sometimes referred to as the Pan-Am smile as it is